2 edition of Notes on the Witwatersrand gold deposits and their associated rocks found in the catalog.
Notes on the Witwatersrand gold deposits and their associated rocks
F. H. Hatch
At head of title: The South African Association of Engineers.
|Statement||by Frederick H. Hatch ; read at the meeting held on 26th Aug., 1903.|
|Contributions||YA Pamphlet Collection (Library of Congress)|
|LC Classifications||YA 13850|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||8 p. ;|
|LC Control Number||96186465|
The Witwatersrand (locally the Rand or, less commonly, the Reef) is a 56adj=midNaNadj=mid, north-facing scarp in South Africa. It consists of a hard, erosion-resistant quartzite metamorphic rock, over which several north-flowing rivers form waterfalls, which account for the name Witwatersrand, meaning "ridge of white waters" in Afrikaans. This east-west-running scarp can be traced with only. High-K rocks are genetically associated with a number of epithermal gold and porphyry copper-gold deposits. In recent years, there has also been growing recognition of an association of such rocks with iron-oxide copper-gold (IOCG) deposits, intrusion-related gold deposits (IRGDs) and Carlin-type gold by:
Ridge, This book documents the ore deposits of mines throughout the United States. For each mine, the history and production, geology, and tables are provided. Goldsheet Mining Directory - World Gold Production This site provides graphs that illustrate gold production for every five years from to , and gold production by country. Links are also included to quarterly mine gold and. as a byproduct of gold, tin, titanium, and other valuable placer minerals. tains that were cored by acidic and alkalic igneous rocks. Conglomerates of the Witwatersrand, South Africa, and in the Blind River Within them, some types of uranium-rich rocks and uranium deposits may be relatively short lived, depending on the geologic history Cited by: 6.
Ore deposits formed by lateral secretion are formed by metamorphic reactions during shearing, which liberate mineral constituents such as quartz, sulfides, gold, carbonates, and oxides from deforming rocks, and focus these constituents into zones of reduced pressure or dilation such as faults. This may occur without much hydrothermal fluid flow. How the Witwatersrand became so rich in gold has long been debated among geologists. The most commonly accepted theory is that gold washed out of mountain ranges and accumulated in a basin.
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The source of the huge amount of gold in the Witwatersrand is thought to be the entire greenstone-dominated Archaean cratonic surface, which was subjected to intensive chemical weathering permitting large-scale leaching of gold by contemporaneous surface by: 2.
Firstly although the gold is generally found in the coarse fraction of modern placids the size of gold grains in the Witwatersrand suggest that they should be associated with their hydraulic equivalents which would be coarse sand stones rather than the conglomerates that we find them in suggesting that the gold was not deposited as grains carried by running water.
Gold, uranium, pyrite, and hydrocarbons are important components of all “Witwatersrand-style” deposits worldwide although their relative abundance varies dramatically both within and among deposits. Full text of "The banket, a study of the auriferous conglomerates of the Witwatersrand and the associated rocks" See other formats.
Secondary Minerals from the Carletonville Gold Mines: Witwatersrand Goldfield, South Africa Article (PDF Available) in Rocks & Minerals 78(6) December with Reads.
Abstract. The Witwatersrand Basin in South Africa is one of the best-preserved records of fluvial sedimentation on an Archaean continent 1. The basin hosts the worlds biggest gold resource in thin Cited by: Virtually all the gold mined in the Witwatersrand.
basin comes from pyritiferous conglomerates and carbon seams; this is partly because these settings have higher gold grades than surrounding litholo- gies and partly because they represent persistent, easily mineable Size: KB. Synopsis The Witwatersrand Basin is the heart of South Africa’a gold mining industry.
The cluster of gold mines located in the Witwatersrand Basin generates a significant amount of mine tailings, which have adverse effects on the environment and ecological systems.
Cited by: 7. Paleoplacer deposits (1) Paleoplacer deposits such as those of the Witwatersrand consist of stratiform layers (bankets) of auriferous quartz-pebble conglomerate, pebbly quartz arenite and cross-bedded arenite, with gold locally enriched in thin carbonaceous Size: KB.
Gold-bearing reefs of the Witwatersrand Basin: A model of synsedimentation hydrothermal formation Article (PDF Available) in Geology of Ore Deposits 48(6) December with 2, Reads. in compliance with the Charter for the South African mining industry. Wits Gold has been granted new order prospecting rights over km2 in key areas of the Witwatersrand Basin, adjacent to active mining are located in the southern Free File Size: KB.
orogenic gold deposits 2. Carlin-type gold deposits 3. epithermal deposits 4. porphyry copper-gold deposits 5.
iron oxide copper-gold deposits 6. gold-rich massive sulfide deposits The seventh type—the Witwatersrand pebble-conglomerate type— may be an ancient alluvial placer, but which others include in the orogenic gold type.
In highly. The Witwatersrand Basin is a largely underground geological formation which surfaces in the Witwatersrand, South holds the world's largest known gold reserves and has produced over billion ounces (o metric tons), which represents about 50% of all the gold ever mined on earth.
The basin straddles the old provinces of Transvaal and the Orange Free State, and consists of a Age of rock: Archaen. The history: By far the most gold that has been mined in South Africa (98%) has come come from the Witwatersrand goldfields. The name "Witwatersrand" is Afrikaans (originating out of Dutch, French and German) for "White Waters Ridge".
The vast majority of orogenic gold (excluding Witwatersrand, South Africa) is from three periods in geologic time: the Neoarchean (ca. Ma), a second period in the Paleoproterozoic (ca. Ma), and a third period from ca. Ma continuing throughout the Phanerozoic (Goldfarb et al., ).Two explanations have been offered for this timing: (1) because orogenic gold deposit Cited by: The Witwatersrand Gold Rush was a gold rush in that led to the establishment of Johannesburg, South Africa.
It was a key part of the Mineral on: Witwatersrand Basin, Johannesburg, South Africa. This amounts to about 26 t of gold/km 2. Another important deposit, the Vaal placer, which lies in the adjacent Klerksdorp goldfield, extracts about 32 t of gold/km 2. Production figures from the well-known Witwatersrand Supergroup placers illustrate their productivity relative to other types of gold deposits Cited by: Get this from a library.
The banket, a study of the auriferous conglomerates of the Witwatersrand and the associated rocks. [Robert B Young] Home a study of the auriferous conglomerates of the Witwatersrand and the associated rocks # Gold mines and mining--South Africa\/span>\n \u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\n schema:bookFormat\/a> bgn.
Inthe English prospector J.H. Davis discovered the first gold in the Witwatersrand, leading to the South African gold rush and the discovery of much more gold deposits within the basin. The m thick lavas of the Ventersdorp Supergroup, which were deposited between and Ga, overlie the Witwatersrand Supergroup (Schneiderhan, ) ().At the base of the Ventersdorp Supergroup, which consists mostly of a sequence of igneous rocks, a layer of sedimentary rock known as the Ventersdorp Contact Reef is by:.
Ore deposit is a natural concentration of one or more minerals within the host rock. Subscribe: About World Earthquakes: World Earthquakes is .The Witwatersrand deposit in South Africa, perhaps the world's most productive single gold deposit, is considered a fossil placer by most geologists.
Through laboratory research, the U.S. Geological Survey has developed new methods for determining the gold content of rocks and soils of the Earth's crust.The Witwatersrand Basin formed over a period of Ma between and Ma.
Pulses of sedimentation within the sequence and its precursors were episodic, occurring between Ma (Dominion Group), Ma (West Rand Group) and Ma (Central Rand Group).Cited by: